Aging is accompanied by many changes in your body, and your eyes are no exception. Some vision changes are expected with age. It can become harder to see things up close, or you may notice difficulty differentiating between some colours. Some people notice their eyes take longer to adjust when walking from light to dark rooms.1

But you can take steps to protect your eyes, starting at any age. Here’s what you should know about aging and eye health.

Lifestyle Plays a Significant Role in Eye Health

A healthy lifestyle goes a long way in maintaining eye health even as we age. Some of the same lifestyle choices that help protect our hearts, brains, and bodies can also help keep our eyes healthy.

For example, one study found that women with high scores for a healthy diet had nearly a 50 percent lower chance of developing certain age-related eye conditions than those with a low score. Combining movement with diet and other health habits was even more protective, reducing the risk of eye problems by more than 70 percent.2

So what exactly is a healthy lifestyle for aging eyes? Here’s what to know:

A Healthy Diet Pattern Can Support Aging Eyes

Your eyes require nutrients in optimal amounts to function at their best.3 A diet with foods that contain antioxidants is crucial for eye health. Foods that contain antioxidants include brightly coloured fruits and vegetables, such as spinach, kale, tomatoes, and blueberries.4

These nutrients scavenge damaging byproducts produced during normal metabolism called free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells in the body and cause oxidation. Oxidation is a natural process that happens when cells interact with oxygen. Too much oxidation can lead to cell damage which impacts your health.5

Antioxidants may support healthy eyes by reducing oxidation in the eye lens. Two powerful antioxidants that have been well studied for eye health are lutein and zeaxanthin.

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two carotenoids found in high concentrations in the retina and lens of the eye.6 These organic pigments are believed to play a role in protecting the eye from damage caused by oxidative stress.7,8

Carotenoids are believed to improve visual function and protect against age-related eye conditions.9 Foods high in lutein and zeaxanthin include kale, spinach, broccoli, and eggs.10 Supplements may also be a way to get enough of these nutrients if you don’t get enough from food or want a higher amount.

The Mediterranean diet is an example of a dietary pattern that includes antioxidants and other nutrients that are especially protective for aging eyes.11 This diet is low in processed foods and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, and healthy fats like olive oil.

Nutrients like Zinc, Vitamin A, and Vitamin B2 Support Optimal Vision

Beyond eating healthy foods, you can prioritise specific vitamins and minerals to support eye health. For example, zinc, a mineral often associated with immune support, helps your eyes by carrying vitamin A to the retina.12

Zinc (which also acts as an antioxidant) is needed in adequate amounts in the diet to support healthy vision.13 Foods that contain zinc include shellfish (especially oysters), pumpkin seeds, or meat. But supplements can also help fill in any gaps.

Vitamin A is critical to eye health because it makes up rhodopsin, the pigment that helps you see in low light.14 Many studies point to the importance of zinc and vitamin A in the diet, with higher intakes related to better age-related eye health.15,16

Some research also points towards an association between long-term vitamin A supplements and healthy vision.17 Carrots usually top the vitamin A food list, but many vegetables like sweet potatoes, bell peppers, and leafy greens also contain vitamin A.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) may also act as an antioxidant to help with oxidation in the eyes, as mentioned earlier.18 Higher intake of riboflavin is linked to better age-related eye health.19,20 It’s found in many foods, including dairy, meat, poultry, and supplements.21

Ultraviolet Light Exposure Can Damage Eyes

We think about limiting sun exposure because of the effects on the skin, but ultraviolet (UV) light exposure from the sun is also linked to age-related eye conditions.22 The cumulative exposure to UV rays occurs over time. Still, damage can start early, so taking steps to protect your eyes from a young age is essential.

One way to do this is by wearing sunglasses outdoors, especially during the peak UV hours. A wide-brimmed hat can offer additional protection from the sun or snow’s reflection.

Move Your Body for Eye Health

Exercise seems to benefit every aspect of health, including vision. Regular exercise is linked to healthy eyes and a lower risk of eye problems as you age.23

One study found frequent (greater than three days a week) vigorous exercise was specifically helpful for eye health in women but not men.24 Another study found that men and women who ran an average of two to four kilometers (about one to two and a half miles) daily had an almost 20 percent lower risk of developing age-related eye conditions.25

Exercise could help by lowering eye pressure (called intraocular pressure) and increasing blood flow to keep your eyes healthy.26 It could also help by supporting reductions in inflammatory signaling molecules that could damage the eye.27 Plus, exercise also helps reduce the risk of other health conditions where problems with eyesight are a symptom.

Limit Eye Strain at Your Computer for Healthy Vision

It’s hard to find someone who isn’t looking at a computer, phone, or some type of screen for several hours each day, but too much eye strain from computer use isn’t good for your eyes. You know that feeling where your eyes start hurting after watching a screen for too long? It’s a signal that it’s time to take a break.

A study on healthy college students found excess screen use increased feelings of tired or burning eyes.28 Over time too much computer can cause strain on the eyes and excess exposure to blue light. Blue light is a type of light emitted from screens with a short wavelength that can penetrate deep into the eye.29

Take eye breaks and look farther away from your screen every twenty to thirty minutes (or better yet, take a walk away from your computer). You can also try blue light blocking glasses that reduce the amount of blue light that hits your eyes.

Quit Smoking to Protect Your Eyes

Smoking is linked to a much higher risk of developing multiple eye problems associated with age. It could increase inflammation that could damage your eyes.30

Smoking may only exacerbate eye problems if you have any genetic predisposition to vision issues as you get older.31 It’s not easy to stop, but you can talk with your doctor to find support to help you quit.

Take Steps to Protect Your Eyes Starting Today

A few simple lifestyle changes may help reduce your risk of developing age-related eye conditions. Eating a healthy diet, exercising, and not smoking are all good ways to help keep your eyes healthy as you age. Supplements can also be a helpful way to make sure you’re getting the nutrients you need for eye health.

Make regular eye exams a part of your health routine, and talk to your doctor about any changes in your vision or concerns about your eye health.

Caitlin Beale, MS, RDN is a registered dietitian and freelance health writer. She has a master’s degree in nutrition and over ten years of experience as a registered dietitian.

+The views expressed in this article are those of the authors. They do not reflect the opinions or views of Pure Encapsulations®.

1 Aging and Your Eyes. National Institute on Aging. Updated July 28, 2021. Accessed August 4, 2022.

2 Mares JA, Voland RP, Sondel SA, et al. Healthy lifestyles related to subsequent prevalence of age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(4):470-480. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.314

3 Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):450-456. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(99)00024-x

4 Grover AK, Samson SE. Antioxidants and vision health: facts and fiction. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;388(1-2):173-183. doi:10.1007/s11010-013-1908-z

5 Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008;4(2):89-96.

6 Mares J. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016;36:571-602. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051110/

7 Böhm F, Edge R, Truscott TG. Interactions of dietary carotenoids with singlet oxygen (1O2) and free radicals: potential effects for human health. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(1):27-30.

8 Murillo AG, Hu S, Fernandez ML. Zeaxanthin: Metabolism, Properties, and Antioxidant Protection of Eyes, Heart, Liver, and Skin. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019;8(9):390. Published 2019 Sep 11. doi:10.3390/antiox8090390

9 Gale CR, Hall NF, Phillips DI, Martyn CN. Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44(6):2461-2465. doi:10.1167/iovs.02-0929

10 Abdel-Aal el-SM, Akhtar H, Zaheer K, Ali R. Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health. Nutrients. 2013;5(4):1169-1185. Published 2013 Apr 9. doi:10.3390/nu5041169

11 Zhu W, Wu Y, Meng YF, Xing Q, Tao JJ, Lu J. Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2016;8(11):743. Published 2016 Nov 22. doi:10.3390/nu8110743

12 Grahn BH, Paterson PG, Gottschall-Pass KT, Zhang Z. Zinc and the eye. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20(2 Suppl):106-118. doi:10.1080/07315724.2001.10719022

13 Ugarte M, Osborne NN. Recent advances in the understanding of the role of zinc in ocular tissues. Metallomics. 2014;6(2):189-200. doi:10.1039/c3mt00291h

14 Vitamin A and Caratenoids. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Updated June 15, 2022. Accessed August 4, 2022.

15 Wang A, Han J, Jiang Y, Zhang D. Association of vitamin A and β-carotene with risk for age-related cataract: a meta-analysis. Nutrition. 2014;30(10):1113-1121. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.025

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17 Kuzniarz M, Mitchell P, Cumming RG, Flood VM. Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132(1):19-26. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(01)00922-9

18 Mazzotta, Cosimo, Stefano Caragiuli, and Aldo Caporossi. “Chapter 13 – Riboflavin and the Cornea and Implications for Cataracts.” In Handbook of Nutrition, Diet and the Eye, edited by Victor R. Preedy, 123–30. San Diego: Academic Press, 2014.

19 Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein BE, et al. Diet and nuclear lens opacities. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141(4):322-334. doi:10.1093/aje/141.4.322

20 Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Smith W. Diet and cataract: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):450-456. doi:10.1016/s0161-6420(99)00024-x

21 Riboflavin. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Updated May 11, 2022. Accessed August 4, 2022.

22 Yam JC, Kwok AK. Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases. Int Ophthalmol. 2014;34(2):383-400. doi:10.1007/s10792-013-9791-x

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25 Williams PT. Prospective study of incident age-related macular degeneration in relation to vigorous physical activity during a 7-year follow-up. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50(1):101-106. doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2165

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